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From The Rabbi's Desk

Commentary, conversations and connections from Rabbi Heidi Hoover

Rabbi's Message for September 2017

posted Sep 2, 2017, 2:23 PM by Michael Rose

In 1986, the movie Ferris Bueller’s Day Off came out. I was a teenager; the film became a favorite of mine, and was iconic for many of my generation. Ferris said, “Life moves pretty fast. If you don't stop and look around once in awhile, you could miss it.” In context, this was ironic because of all he and his friends did in that day. There wasn’t a lot of stopping and looking around, though at the same time there was an appreciation of every moment.

It is true that life moves fast, and it’s easy to get caught up and forget to notice, appreciate, remember extraordinary moments. Last month, the United States experienced both the wonder and the tragedy of nature’s exceptional events.

Our hearts are full of sadness and shock at the devastation caused by Hurricane Harvey’s flooding in Texas and Louisiana, especially in the communities of Houston and nearby towns. We pray for the health and recovery of those affected most directly, for the consolation of those who lost loved ones, and for the return to normalcy for our Jewish communities and all who suffer the after-effects of this terrifying natural disaster. We have posted some suggested ways to assist the recovery effort on our website and on the Temple’s Twitter feed at

Before the waters rose and the winds came, however, there was another day with a very different sky. On August 21, the United States paused in awe as a solar eclipse reached totality all across our country. In Brooklyn, there was not a full solar eclipse, but at 2:44 pm, about 75 percent of the sun was covered by the moon.

In advance of the eclipse, there was a lot of excitement, and there were many warnings. “Don’t look directly at the sun! Permanent eye damage will result.” There was testimony on the internet from people who have damaged their eyes that way. It seems bizarre that the sun, so far away, could burn our eyes. And yet, that is how powerful it is. The sun is literally vital to our survival, and at the same time it can blind us.

This is one of the metaphors that can help us think about God, especially as God is depicted in the Bible. God is so powerful that God can rescue our people, care for us, sustain us with miraculous food (the manna in the wilderness), and lead us to the Promised Land. At the same time, God tells Moses, “No one may see My face and live.” We are taught that approaching God is dangerous for anyone not in a state of ritual purity. God ensures the survival of our people, but in the Bible, if we are not careful around that power, people die.

These days, a God that penalizes people in deadly ways for sin, who causes death when it’s not clear why, isn’t really the God we want, nor are those ways of thinking and talking about God helpful in times of disaster and pain caused by natural events like hurricanes, earthquakes or floods. We want a friendly God who loves us, forgives us, and tells us that when we do what we believe is right, we’re going to be okay.

Jewish tradition gives a blessing to say upon seeing a natural wonder, like a comet or lightning: “Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Maker of the works of creation” or “…whose power and might fill the world.” Most Jewish sources do not advocate saying a blessing for a solar eclipse, however, but see it as a bad omen. (Tradition does support saying one of these blessings when witnessing powerful winds.)

It’s not hard to imagine how frightening a solar eclipse might have been to those who didn’t understand it. And even though ancient Jewish and non-Jewish astronomers did understand how it happened, darkness when there is supposed to be light doesn’t look good, as light is generally associated with good and darkness with bad.

I was excited about seeing the eclipse (even the partial, Brooklyn version), and I took the sheet of “solar film” my husband had ordered (an uncut piece of the dark plastic material used in Eclipse Glasses) to the restaurant where I was lunching with a friend. We sat outside. It was amazing to see the sun as the moon passed between it and the Earth.

What was more amazing was the sense of community. A man at the table next to ours heard us talking, and looked over curiously. “Do you want to look?” I said. He did. Very shortly afterward, other patrons asked about my film sheet and asked to borrow it. It was passed around, among people who would not have spoken to each other under different circumstances.

I have experienced Brooklyn and NYC unity when faced with adversity — camaraderie in response to subway delays or other setbacks — but I have few memories of New Yorkers coming together around something positive and amazing.

For that reason, I reject the idea that the eclipse was a bad omen. We didn’t need a sign for that: We know that we live in a difficult and uncertain time. We saw Nazis and white supremacists march without fear in Charlottesville, Virginia. We saw the awful and terrible power of a mighty storm bring an enormous city to a halt, and we worry that a changing climate may bring more “500-year floods” on an all too frequent basis. But we as communities can and do come together and support each other. We can step up and help out, as many volunteers and organizations are doing in Texas right now. We can simply share our wonder and awe with those around us, and open ourselves up to the possibility of connection and community every day.

In a similar vein, our community will be joining with Progressive Temple Beth Ahavath Sholom toward the end of next month. It is tempting to see this as a metaphorical “eclipse” of one congregation by another (which is which depends on your perspective). It is our challenge—and I believe we will meet it—to recognize the feelings of loss that members of each congregation might be experiencing (the light is being eclipsed), and to see that beyond the loss there is opportunity and vitality—the sun will shine unhindered again.

Meanwhile, we thank God for the beauty of nature, the ability to help and heal, the opportunity to slow down and appreciate (if we can remember to take it), and the possibility of renewal, recovery and full sun. I look forward to seeing you soon.

Shabbat Sermon 8/18/2017: Parashat R'eih

posted Aug 19, 2017, 6:33 AM by Michael Rose   [ updated Aug 19, 2017, 6:39 AM ]

This week’s Torah portion, R’eih, begins with blessing and curse. Moses tells the people they have a choice, between being blessed if they follow God’s commandments and cursed if they don’t. Moses prescribes a ritual of pronouncing the blessing at Mount Gerizim, a mountain covered with vegetation, and the curse at Mount Ebal, a bare, steep mountain. It seems straight-forward: Follow God’s instructions, and all will be well. Fail to do so, particularly by beginning to follow other gods, and all will most emphatically not be well.
Idol-worship in the sense that it is discussed in our Torah is not an issue for us today. The rabbis of the Talmud, nearly two thousand years ago, said that even then, it had been a long time since idolatry was a real temptation for the Israelites. But as I read this week about what brings about blessing and curse, I was thinking about what our modern equivalent might be.

For me, following God’s instructions means taming my basest instincts and trying to put good into the world. It means taking care of ourselves, but not at the expense of the community. The 20th-century French Jewish philosopher Emmanuel Levinas saw Judaism itself as ethics. He said that seeing God looking at you out of the eyes of every other person is what motivates you to treat that person justly. 

Turning away from God means giving up on doing what is right, engaging in sinat chinam, baseless hatred. It means considering some human lives as less important than others. It means turning a blind eye to the suffering of others and to evil.

“Evil” is a very strong word, and I don’t use it lightly. I don’t see evil in many people or places, but there are times when it is the only word to use. 

As many of you may have been, I was shaken by the white supremacist, Nazi rally that took place last weekend in Charlottesville, VA. Seeing so many young people, most of them men, all of them white, chanting “Jews will not replace us,” and “You will not replace us,” waving flags with swastikas on them and wearing Nazi gear, brazenly displaying their hatred of Jews and people of color (some of whom are also Jews), was upsetting. For me one of the most chilling images was a shot of the crowd from above, after dark, with a sea of torches. I’ve been to candlelight vigils before—that’s very different than torches.

Even worse was the president’s response, equivocating, saying there was violence on many sides, that many of the white supremacist marchers were “good people.” In a world where so many issues are not straight-up black and white, this one is. You cannot embrace Nazi ideology and be a good person. Nazism is evil. White supremacy is evil. On one side of my family I am descended from the youngest signer of the Declaration of Independence, a South Carolinian named Edward Rutledge. There is honor in that. However, he also owned 70 enslaved human beings. I am ashamed of that. On the other side of my family I am German. My grandfather and my great-uncles were not Nazis, but they did serve in the German army in World War II. There is great shame in that for me. 

Jews in Germany in the early 1900s had it really good. They were largely assimilated, and Germany was the center for Jewish scholarship at the time. When Hitler came to power, that turned on a dime and we all know what happened, because we carry the scar of the Holocaust on our collective Jewish psyche.

That Nazis feel comfortable marching openly in the United States is bad. That the head of our government will not condemn them unequivocally is worse. The president is bringing a curse on our land rather than a blessing. This is as straight-forward to me as the beginning of our Torah portion.

Later in our Torah portion, though, it seems a little less clear. We are told “There shall be no needy among you,” and three verses later, “If there is a needy person among you…do not harden your heart and shut your hand against your needy kin,” and four verses after that, “For there will never cease to be needy ones in your land” (Deut. 15:4, 7, 11).

This apparent contradiction may hinge on that first mention, “There shall be no needy among you,” because it continues, “if only you heed the Eternal your God and take care to keep all this Instruction that I enjoin upon you this day.” The fact that “there will never cease to be needy ones” seems to be an acknowledgement that the people will never succeed in following God’s law so fully that there will be no needy. But neither curse nor blessing seems to be the response to that. It’s not as clear as: Do everything right and get blessed, or do everything wrong and get cursed: There seems to be a middle ground, as there would have to be, because we are fallible humans.

When it comes to the needy among us, the plain meaning of the Torah text is that it’s talking about financial need. But we know that there are different kinds of need. 

As some of you saw that I said on Facebook today, we in Brooklyn are still okay. Our local politicians are firm in their condemnation of and responses to antisemitism. In Brooklyn, some of the people who have a harder time are people of color (some of whom are also Jewish), undocumented immigrants (some of whom are also Jewish), and Muslims. 

In order to be worthy of blessing and to do God’s work, we must pay attention not only to our own needs—though we must pay attention to our own needs also—but we must also care for the needy among us, whether they are needy because of poverty, because of systemic racism, because of anti-Muslim, anti-transgender, or anti-immigrant rhetoric and action.

This can sometimes be a little more complicated than standing against Nazis. When the Black Lives Matter movement is also pro-Palestinian and anti-Israel, that can be painful for Jews. I stand with the Black Lives Matter movement anyway, but it’s not completely straight-forward. I was very moved this week when the March for Racial Equality, planned for Yom Kippur, posted an apology for putting the march on that day, suggested that there will be sister marches the next day, and acknowledged the intersectionality of antisemitism and racism. I’ll be at the sister march on October 1 if there is one in New York City.

When it’s uncomplicated and when it’s complicated, God’s Instruction obligates us not to stand by the blood of our neighbors and to love the stranger. It obligates us to call out evil when we see it, to stand up for ourselves and for those who are under attack by the forces of evil, including Nazis and white supremacists.
In the Talmud, there’s a story of how the great Rabbi Meir was being harassed by some guys in his neighborhood, and he prayed for them to die. His wife, Beruriah, a scholar, rebuked him and said should not pray for their deaths, but that they should repent of their wickedness and reform.

In that spirit, let us pray that the white supremacists and the Nazis and their supporters, including our president and many of his advisors, may repent and turn away from their hateful ways. And let us stand strong and together with the many people in our city and our country who are for justice and equity for all people. 

Amen and Shabbat shalom.

We Have to Stand Up--Post-election sermon, Nov. 11, 2016

posted Nov 14, 2016, 11:51 AM by Heidi Hoover   [ updated Nov 14, 2016, 11:51 AM by Michael Rose ]

I have to admit that I didn’t expect the outcome of this week’s election. I didn’t believe that together with the people who are racist, misogynist, xenophobic, and homophobic in this country, there would be enough people who were unhappy enough with Hillary Clinton or the Democratic party or the status quo to overlook all of Donald Trump’s attitudes and vote for him. I don’t believe that all of Trump’s supporters are in agreement with all the hateful, horrible things he’s said. I certainly don’t believe that those in this congregation who support Trump are in agreement with all the things he’s said. I have heard in our community and on the news people talking about feeling betrayed by Clinton—the Clinton Foundation pledged to help after the disastrous earthquake in Haiti, but the money did not make the difference Haiti needed; Hillary Clinton supported policies that helped lead to mass incarceration of young men of color. These and other issues may be reasons that good people were able to overlook Trump’s attitudes during the campaign.

Not everyone can overlook what Trump has said, though. My daughter Shoshi goes to a diverse middle school with kids of color and Muslim kids. Those kids are afraid. Last spring I went to her school to watch the students perform plays they had written about issues important to them. I watched an 11-year-old Hispanic boy say in his play that Donald Trump wants to make his family leave the country. That was heartbreaking. How must that boy feel today?

A friend of mine who is black, and married to an Austrian man who is scarred by the fact that his parents were ardent Nazis, already felt afraid of the police because of all the police killings of unarmed black people. She feels that anyone who could vote for Trump, overlooking his racism, is rejecting her too.

Many women who have been sexually assaulted, and statistics tell us that one in four women have, are having that trauma dredged up again by the fact that Donald Trump, a man who casually bragged about sexually assaulting women, has been elected. They think his election is a statement that what happened to them doesn’t matter.

All of us in this congregation and in this country who don’t consider ourselves racist, misogynist, homophobic, xenophobic, and don’t want to be those things, whether we voted for Trump or Clinton or a third-party candidate or not at all, have a very big job ahead of us.

Like it or not, the election of Donald Trump has, for the bigots, misogynists, and xenophobes in our county, legitimized their beliefs. Donald Trump did not reject the endorsement of the notorious white supremacist David Duke. He said he didn’t know Duke, but didn’t condemn him. On election night, Duke tweeted: “This is one of the most exciting nights of my life -> make no mistake about it, our people have played a HUGE role in electing Trump!” and “Donald J. Trump now has the chance to become one of the greatest Americans to have ever lived - we have the moral high ground, 100%!” The next day, he tweeted: “The vast majority of Blacks, Jews and Hispanics - hate White Christian men so much -> they were willing to destroy this nation.” This is a prominent white supremacist, former leader of the Ku Klux Klan, whom Donald Trump did not disavow. David Duke thinks Donald Trump is on his side. As a Jew, and as a person who cares about other people, this bothers me a lot.

A rabbi I know who is also a judge went to work at the courthouse in White Plains, NY the day after the election to find the statue of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. defaced with antisemitic graffiti, and law enforcement in the courthouse investigating reports of white powder in the building. I know this isn’t new, and maybe it would have happened regardless of who was elected. It may take a while before we know to what extent hate crimes increase, but there are already reports of people being attacked and Trump’s name being invoked during the crime. People who hate are feeling validated to act on their hate. (

In Pirkei Avot, the Wisdom of the Sages, we read: “Rabbi Tarfon said: You are not obligated to complete the task, but neither are you free to abandon it.” In the book of Deuteronomy, in parashat Shoftim, we read: “Justice, justice shall you pursue.”

Antisemitism is not justice.

Discrimination against LGBTQ+ people and homophobia is not justice.

Racism is not justice.

Xenophobia is not justice.

Misogyny is not justice.

I have spoken about all of these issues from this bimah before. Now more than ever, it is our responsibility to stand up for justice. That is the task we may not abandon, though we probably will not be able to complete it. No matter who we voted for, or what we were able to overlook to cast our vote, it is our obligation to stand against the injustice that Donald Trump, through his words in his campaign, has legitimized for the people in our country who are hateful. Again, not all Trump supporters are like that, and the ones who aren’t, together with the rest of us, must show it by being vocal and unequivocal in our opposition to discrimination and hate.

When we talk about antisemitism, it is obviously something that directly affects us as a Jewish community. But don’t think that homophobia, racism, xenophobia and misogyny aren’t Jewish issues, and aren’t issues in our congregation. We have Jewish LGBT families in our congregation who have to wonder now if their marriages will continue to be recognized. We have Jewish people of color in our congregation who already face racism and discrimination, and may be fearing an increase. We have Jewish immigrants in our congregation, including children who were adopted internationally. We have Jewish congregants who have close Muslim relatives, who fear for their safety. And of course we have women in our congregation, some of whom have been sexually assaulted, all of whom have been denigrated at one time or another for their gender, and many of whom feel personally degraded by Donald Trump’s attitude toward women.

If you don’t think it’s important to stand up for people outside the Jewish community, then stand up for the Jews who are LGBTQ+, of color, immigrant, and/or female.

There are lots of ways to do it. Join organizations that work against discrimination and hate. Donate to causes that support those who experience discrimination. Call or write to our elected officials. Blog. Sign petitions. Go to protests. No one has to do all of it, but we must all do something to stand against hate and for justice.

Last week I said that we must remember that everyone—Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, the supporters of each of them—is made in God’s image, even though that’s very difficult, even when we hate what some of them stand for. Remembering everyone’s basic humanity, that each person is somehow made in God’s image, does not mean that we don’t condemn injustice in the strongest terms. But we must not dehumanize those who hold and express hateful, unjust ideas and those who act on those ideas, even if they are dehumanizing us. If we can, we must engage them as humans.

In the Talmud, there is a story of Rabbi Meir, one of the great rabbis. Rabbi Meir was having problems with people harassing him in his neighborhood. He was very angry and upset, and decided he would pray for them to die. His wife, Beruriah, who was also a scholar, rebuked him, quoting Psalm 104:35: “Let sins be uprooted from the earth, and the wicked will be no more.” It says “sins,” not “sinners,” she said. You should not pray that these people will die, but that they will repent and change their ways. Then “the wicked will be no more.” Rabbi Meir acknowledged that she was right. That’s seeing the basic humanity, seeing God’s image, even in people who are acting out of hate.

This week’s Torah portion, Lech l’cha, is the one in which God tells Avram to leave his home, his father’s house, and his homeland to go to the place God will show him. As we read earlier, Avram takes his wife Sarai and his nephew Lot and “the people they had acquired in Haran.” Literally, it’s “the people they had made in Haran.” It doesn’t say “servants” or “employees.” The midrash tells us that the rabbis say that these were people Avram and Sarai had converted to Judaism—well, to their form of monotheism, since there wasn’t Judaism yet, really. What that means, basically, is that people who were of the same mind, who shared the same beliefs as Avram and Sarai, went with them.

Did they know where they were going? Not at first. God says, “Go to the land I will show you.” At the outset of the journey, they don’t know where they will end up.

We are in a similar position. In electing Donald Trump, our country has started a journey and we don’t know where we will end up. The truth is, that is always the case. Sometimes we think we know what the destination is that we’re heading toward, but we don’t know what life will bring and how that will change where we end up. That’s unsettling, sometimes frightening, but we aren’t alone. Avram and Sarai were not alone. With them were people who believed what they believed, and they set out on that journey with determination, faith, and trust that they would reach the land and it would be good, as God promised.

Earlier this evening we repeated an interpretive translation of one of the blessings that surrounds the Sh’ma, our declaration of the oneness of God. It invokes another journey, the journey that led to the formation of the Jewish people:

Standing on the parted shores of history
we still believe what we were taught
before ever we stood at Sinai's foot;
that wherever we go, it is eternally Egypt
that there is a better place, a promised land;
that the winding way to that promise
passes through the wilderness.
That there is no way to get from here to there
except by joining hands, marching

This is what I’m calling on all of us who are for justice and against hate to do: Join hands. March together. Support each other. Protect the vulnerable. Fight for the human rights of every person. Stand up and reject hateful words and actions, in whatever way you choose to do it. This week was the anniversary of Kristallnacht, the night of the pogrom in Germany November 9, 1938, when Jewish businesses were destroyed, vandalized, looted, burned. We know too well what happens when hate is legitimized and groups of people are scapegoated. We cannot be silent.

The blessing we read, and that I just read again, leads into the singing of Micha Mocha. Micha Mocha is the triumphant, joyous song that the Israelites sing upon safely crossing through the Reed Sea to escape the Egyptians. Let us find hope in our being together on this journey, and let us look toward the day when hate is defeated and we too can burst into joyous song and dance. Amen and Shabbat shalom.

Responding to Discrimination: Yom Kippur 5777/2016

posted Oct 13, 2016, 2:37 PM by Heidi Hoover   [ updated Oct 13, 2016, 2:47 PM by Michael Rose ]

When I was in college, I had a bad experience with a man on campus. He was someone I considered a friend. We had both been drinking. We were arguing about sexual assault at our university: I contended that it happened, and frequently; he insisted that it did not. The argument became heated, and in his anger, he grabbed my throat. He didn’t do it hard enough to hurt, but definitely hard enough that I could feel it. He said, “I’ll kill you if you don’t listen to me.” People intervened, everyone calmed down, no one, including me, was physically hurt. But I was terrified. Who does that? Maybe you grab someone’s arm if you feel like they’re not listening. But their throat?

I am fortunate. That is just about the worst that has happened to me, though there are other stories I could tell too. So many women, and I’m sure some of you in this room, have far worse stories. In the past few days, many women, some of whom I know personally and some of whom I don’t, have courageously and publicly shared what has happened to them. Only one of the stories that I’ve seen shared, of women and girls being groped, threatened, assaulted, sexually harassed, resulted in prosecution of the man responsible.

People who are discriminated against, disadvantaged, or oppressed respond to it in different ways. Whether they are women, Jews, African- or Caribbean-Americans, Latinos, or a combination of these identities or others, there are commonalities in the types of response to discrimination and oppression.

Some become activists. They rage against the system, insist that their treatment is wrong and needs to change. Sometimes that work is dangerous, and there are many who perceive them as rabble-rousers, extremists, people who are overreacting to a system that isn’t really so bad. Many of these activists are part of the discriminated-against group, and some are not, but are allies. Some examples of those who have stood up against various types of oppression are: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr., Gloria Steinem, Susan B. Anthony, and Cezar Chavez.

Some do not become activists. They take the view that the world just is the way it is, and it isn’t going to change, so you just have to live with it. People for whom this is the response say things like: Men always say lewd things about women when they’re alone with other men, and there’s no way to change that; boys will be boys; racism is too deeply ingrained to be rooted out; antisemitism is always there, so don’t be too outspoken about being Jewish. These people often depend on staying under the radar, not drawing too much attention, and dismissing discrimination as something you might as well not protest against, since you can’t do anything about it.

Still others, often some of those who have become successful despite discrimination, take the view that members of their group, whether that group is women or a minority, can succeed if they follow the rules and work hard enough. They see themselves as evidence of this, and dismiss anyone who complains of discrimination or oppression as weak, complaining because they are not strong enough or don’t want to work hard enough to overcome their circumstances.

Ursula Hegi’s Stones from the River, an epic novel about a small German town in the years before and during World War II, does a very good job of showing all the various types of reactions people had when oppression of Jews began and increased under Hitler and the Nazi party, leading to the Holocaust. Some of the Jews said, “This is definitely bad, but we’ve been through bad times before, so we just need to hunker down, stay put, and wait for it to pass.” Others immediately began to try to leave the country. Still others became resisters. Among the Christians in the town, some were active Nazis. Some were resisters. And there was a whole range in between—those who tried not to get involved, those who reported someone to the Nazis and then experienced such remorse that they became resisters, reluctant resisters, and more.

I am not judging any of these reactions, except for the active Nazis. Them, I judge. But when you are in a group that is discriminated against and oppressed, it isn’t my place to judge anything you need to do to get through that and try to survive.

When I was in college, I thought a lot about the issue of women not reporting sexual assault. It was known then, and it is still the case, that sexual assault is underreported, and it is still true that women have terrible experiences at trials for their attackers. Women are still blamed for how they dress, what they drink, and where they are. Men are still excused because “their lives shouldn’t be ruined by one thing they did.” A well-known case in point is Brock Turner, who raped a woman behind a dumpster, was caught in the act by two other men, and who was let off by Judge Aaron Persky with a very light sentence of six months because he was a champion swimmer with a bright future. He served three months. There is little concern for the impact on the life of the woman who was assaulted.

So there are good reasons for not reporting assault. At the same time, if it isn’t reported, and if it isn’t prosecuted, certainly nothing will change. I didn’t want to place an added burden on women who had already been through a horrible experience, though. Where I landed was with the idea that if you are able to speak out, if you are able to call for prosecution of your attacker, if it isn’t too scary for you or too hard to do, then you have an obligation to do it. However, if you can’t, because it’s too much, then you should not, and you should not feel bad about yourself for that.

As we repent and atone for our sins on this Yom Kippur, we might spend some time thinking about our responses to the discrimination and oppression we witness in our lives—against us and against others. To what extent have we been bystanders? Have we listened to lewd, demeaning talk about women and laughed, or said nothing? Have we listened to racist talk and said nothing? I am not proud to say that I have done both, and that is one of the sins for which I am atoning today.

To what extent are we able to stand up against discrimination and oppression, against our own group or a group we are not part of? To what extent is it our responsibility to do so? Our texts are pretty clear that we have an obligation to take care of other Jews. The Torah tells us not to cheat or steal from our neighbors, and that means Jews. The Talmud tells us that one may break the Sabbath if it means saving the life of a fellow Jew. If we are caring for fellow Jews, that means we must be aware of and concerned with racism and discrimination against people of color, knowing as we do that Jews come in all races and colors.

But our sacred texts don’t tell us to care only about other Jews, and I’m not sure there’s anyone in this room who would say we have no obligation toward anyone who isn’t Jewish. In the Torah, 36 times we are told not to neglect or abuse the stranger living among us. In the Torah that meant people from non-Israelite tribes who had joined the Israelites, perhaps Egyptians who chose to leave with the Israelites in the Exodus, and others who joined with them, perhaps because they married Israelites. For us, today, it can mean those we encounter, and those who live in our neighborhoods and in our country, who are not Jewish.

Our society is pluralistic. Brooklyn is a place where many languages are spoken, many religions are practiced, and many great restaurants offer cuisine from around the world. In my neighborhood, and in the neighborhood of our temple, there are Christians, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, atheists, and more. People are black, white, Asian, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Latino, Middle Eastern—including Israeli—and more. There are immigrants and 1st-generation Americans—I’m a first-generation American on my mom’s side—as well as those whose families have lived here for many generations—that’s also me, on my dad’s side. The vast majority of us live together in peace. This is something to be proud of. I love my neighborhood, where the Polish deli is just down the street from the Bangladeshi shop. Our neighbors might not be Jewish, but we live among them, and they live among us. We’re all invested in being safe and allowed to make a living and raise our families. Our tradition says we should all be treated the same—“The stranger among you shall be to you as a citizen,” we read. All the moreso when the person who is different from us actually is an American citizen! So it is on us, according to our tradition, to stand for the rights of everyone in our country, whether they are different than us or not.

Our haftarah for today is the book of Jonah. The short story of Jonah is a story of a guy who did not behave in an optimal way. Ordered by God to go to the people of Nineveh—the ruins of which are in northern Iraq, by the way, across the river from Mosul—and tell them to repent, he instead runs away. That doesn’t go so well for him—you probably remember about the whole getting swallowed by a big fish and all that—if you don’t, we’ll be reading it later. Eventually he does get to Nineveh and delivers God’s message. The people of Nineveh—not Jewish, let’s remember—immediately repent and put on sackcloth and ashes, from the king on down. And Jonah is angry. He would have preferred that this city full of human beings be destroyed, as if it were nothing more than a hill of ants or a bowl of Skittles. He gets more upset about the death of a plant than he would have about the destruction of an entire city-full of people and animals.

God doesn’t condemn him. The story ends leaving us hanging. Here’s how I understand Jonah. Jonah is a guy who has lived the same way his whole life, and he thinks he understands how the world works, and how God works. He’s content. But then one day he’s told the world isn’t quite the way he thinks it is. He has to interact with people who are unfamiliar, help them, because they desperately need help—their lives are in danger. Jonah doesn’t want to. He likes his life the way it is, so he resists, tries to ignore how his world has changed, and literally runs away. Maybe he’s afraid of a world different than the one he knows. Running away doesn’t work, though. So, reluctantly, he does what he was told he had to do. He gives them the message that, when they respond to it, saves their lives. God can make him do what he has to for these people who are different than he is, but God can’t make him see their humanity or appreciate their culture, or understand that he might learn from them, that knowing them could make his life richer. So at the end of the story, Jonah’s life is small and he feels alone, and he probably doesn’t even realize that that is a choice he made.

Our tradition obliges us to help each other as well as those different from ourselves, to not stand by the blood of our neighbor and to care for the stranger, for we were strangers in the land of Egypt. One way to do this is to stand against racism, sexism, xenophobia, homophobia, and discrimination of all kinds. If we don’t like the way the world is changing, we can try to run away by ignoring it, but that probably won’t work. We can help others fearfully and begrudgingly, out of obligation. Or we can stand proudly, open ourselves to new experiences and people, and see that we don’t have to hide and be alone. We can have faith that as the world changes, we can help it change for the better. We can believe that if we get to know the strangers, they can become our neighbors in friendship as well as proximity, so that when we do disagree we can work it out. And we will know we are not alone, because as we reach out to others, they will reach out to us.

This world is our home. We have no other. It is often a very harsh place. In our liturgy we say that teshuvah, tefillah, and tzedakah—repentance or returning to the path we want to be on, prayer, and giving our money to create justice—are the actions that avert the harshness of the world. Let us do teshuvah and atone for the times we have participated in, benefitted from, and stood by discrimination and oppression. Let us remember how we have felt when we were discriminated against or oppressed, and remind ourselves not to let it happen to others, whether they are like us or not. Let us have faith that is bigger than our fear. Faith in ourselves, in our culture, in our God, in whatever way we understand that word “God”, and in our future. Let us recognize the obligation and the benefit in helping those who need it, in standing up for dignity and equal rights for everyone, with the resources of our money, our voices, our participation in civic life. Amen and g’mar chatimah tovah—may you be sealed in the Book of Life for a good year to come.

Anthem that followed the sermon--"Home," performed in this recording by artist Phillip Phillips:

It is Not Good for a Person to be Alone

posted Oct 13, 2016, 12:30 PM by Heidi Hoover   [ updated Oct 13, 2016, 2:35 PM by Michael Rose ]

Last Tuesday, on the second day of Rosh Hashanah, we read from the very beginning of the Torah, about the seven days in which, the Torah tells us, God created the world. On each day, God pronounces what God has created to be good. On the sixth day, when the work is complete, God says that it is “very good.” And God rests on the seventh day. The first of the two creation stories is complete.

Rabbi Shoshana Boyd Gelfand, in Rabbi Lawrence Hoffman’s book We have Sinned: Sin and Confession in Judaism, discusses the power of words. After all, the Torah tells us that God brought the world into being with words. “Let there be light,” says God, and then there is light. After the destruction of the Temple, our rabbis made a transition from performing animal sacrifice to prayer instead—they explicitly replaced the act of sacrifice with words. Rabbi Gelfand writes, “Surely, if words can create the world, then they can also re-create and even repair the world” (p. 165). When we confess our sins on Yom Kippur, we are using our words to acknowledge and atone, to repair ourselves and our community. It is something we must do together.

After the first creation story in the Torah, second creation story is told. In the first chapter of Genesis, God creates humans on the sixth day, and it says, “male and female God created them.” In the second chapter on Genesis, the story seems to begin with the creation of the person, and it is a single person. The person is placed in the Garden of Eden. It is then that we have the first instance in the Torah of “lo tov.” Not good. God observes that it is not good for a person to be alone. God creates all kinds of animals to keep the person company, but apparently none of them are a good match. So God creates a second person, and then there is a man and a woman.

We have known since the beginning of time that it is not good for a person to be chronically alone. Today, science bears that out. There are multiple studies that show that social isolation has serious consequences. People who do not feel connected to others are more likely to have chronic diseases like cancer, heart disease, and diabetes; they more frequently get colds or flu, and take longer to recover; they feel lonely and often depressed; and they don’t live as long as people who do feel connected to others. (Source:

There is a difference between choosing to be alone, and being socially isolated. People who are introverts need alone time—lots of it, sometimes—because that is how they recharge their energy. Someone who is socially isolated may or may not be an introvert, but they are not feeling that they have access to others when they need companionship or social interaction.

Various factors can contribute to social isolation. In our society, where extended families often live far from one another, we often don’t have the support of relatives who live nearby. New mothers can find themselves feeling socially isolated and lonely when they’re home with a newborn, trying to learn to parent. Elderly, homebound people easily become socially isolated when they can’t get to places where there are people to connect with. Those with serious illnesses, regardless of age, often find themselves alone, as friends don’t know how to interact with them and so, too often, just don’t. Those who are grieving a loss may also find themselves feeling doubly alone—without the person who has died, and without people to share their loss and pain with. And many people, including me, have trouble reaching out and asking others for help.

In high school, though I had friends and family and wasn’t socially isolated, I still sometimes felt lonely. I remember friends would always say, “I’m here whenever you need me.” They meant well, but I remember thinking, “What about when I’m not having a crisis so that I need you? What about just the rest of the time? Why are you only there when I have a specific need?” The message was that they were available when something was wrong, not just for regular, daily friendship.

Rabbi Gelfand calls isolation the Jewish “original sin.” As the first thing in the Torah that is declared “not good,” she says, “God (and the Torah) become obsessed with relationship. The relationship between human beings and God and the relationship between human beings and each other are the focus of the rest of the Torah” (p. 166).

On Erev Rosh Hashanah, I spoke about unconditional love from God. Jews don’t talk about God that much; maybe because we focus more on behavior than belief most of the time, or maybe because Judaism doesn’t dictate what our relationship with God needs to be—it’s up to each of us to develop our own relationship with God, in whatever way we understand that word “God.” In our evening services, though, when we read or sing Ahavat Olam, what we are saying is that we are loved by an unending love. Maybe you feel loved unconditionally by God, maybe you don’t. I can’t access belief in that love all the time. And actually, I don’t think God loving us and being with us is enough to prevent us from feeling socially isolated. What we really need is the second kind of relationship the Torah focuses on: the relationship human beings have with each other.

Americans are not joining organizations the way that they used to. Families and friends spend less time together. Synagogues, churches, and other organizations are struggling. And social isolation is increasing. According to Robert Putnam and the Saguaro Seminar for Civic Engagement at Harvard’s Kennedy School, the number of socially isolated Americans more than doubled over the 2 decades from 1984-2004, from 10% to a quarter of all Americans. This is not because of the internet, says Putnam, it was already happening before Facebook, before email.

The reasons for Americans’ civic disengagement are complicated. The Saguaro Seminar website gives this short and necessarily incomplete answer to the question of what the cause is: “After considering a whole host of reasons, it is most likely that the cause is probably: 10% sprawl and the increased geographic complexity of our lives; 10% two-career families and the fact that men haven’t picked up the civic slack created when more women entered the paid work force; some 30% television (which seems to cause viewers to increasingly be less civic and which has absorbed more than 100% of the increase in leisure time from the 1960s); and roughly 30% generational trends (as those born after 1930 have increasingly been far less civic than those born before 1930). The final roughly 20% is probably a combination of many other factors.” (

So we Jews, and others who look to our Bible as sacred text, have known forever that social isolation is not good. More recently, science backs this idea up.

I think you know what I am going to propose as a remedy. If it weren’t Yom Kippur, you could get good and tipsy if you played a drinking game where you had to drink every time I say the word “community.” But that really is what it’s about. Those of you who are here on a regular basis, either for services or for other activities, already know what our synagogue community has to offer. It’s a chance to meet people with all different kinds of jobs and family situations. It’s a chance to spend time with people in different kinds of life situations. If you’re a grandparent with grandkids far away, there are babies and little kids here for you to kvell over. If you’re a parent of young kids with your parents far away, there are folks here who have been through it and can tell you it’s going to be okay. There is the opportunity here to socialize and become friends both with people who are in a similar life situation, and people of different generations and life experiences. We help and support each other.

One parent told me that one Saturday morning, she got a call from her alarm company that the alarm in her home was going off. She had not driven to the synagogue, so she was getting ready to walk home and check it out when another parent, who she didn’t really know, offered to drive her to her house with her and see what was going on. She gratefully accepted the offer, glad to have the ride and to not be alone if there were an intruder in her home. There was not, fortunately. But this is who we are. People who, when we notice that something is happening in someone’s life, offer help. This is not the only story that I’ve heard like this.

I think all of you know by now that we’ve been facing significant challenges with our building. We have not been able to use our function room downstairs for just about a month. This crisis has mobilized our members. A team of members who have knowledge or influence have joined our temple leadership to address this issue. If you have not volunteered or been contacted, and if you feel you have something to add to help address this crisis, please contact the office or our congregational president, Jeff Levinson.

Our congregation has been here for over 100 years, representing Reform Judaism in Flatbush, Brooklyn. I believe to the core of my being that Jewish community is worthwhile, and in particular, I love this community like I’ve never loved any other Jewish community I’ve participated in. Unfortunately, as you’ve already heard tonight, our community is in financial danger. It’s not because we don’t have devoted members, and it’s not because people who come here don’t value the community. It’s because when you’re over 100 years old, and your building is over 100 years old, and you’ve struggled through many years of financial hardship, the building needs a lot of work. And this isn’t the kind of work that philanthropists find interesting. So, financially, we’re very challenged. And if you value this community, and if you have access to significant resources, please, if you can, leverage them to help your community of Temple Beth Emeth v’Ohr Progressive Shaari Zedek.

Meanwhile, as a team ably led by treasurer Evelyn Shunaman and president Jeff Levinson work to balance our budget and find sources of funds to do what we need to do for the building, I continue to work with our congregants to enhance and enrich the spiritual life of our synagogue family.

I hope that among those of you who are here, and those watching our streaming video, there is no one who feels socially isolated and neglected. If you do, please, please reach out to me so that I can help and let others in our community know so that they can help.

It is our task to carry out ahavat olam, the everlasting, unending love that our tradition promises. Our texts say that that love is God’s love. As humans created in God’s image, our role is to manifest God’s love to other humans. So starting within our own synagogue community, let us support one another, even if we don’t agree politically or find ourselves in a similar life situation. Let us talk and listen to one another. Let us do everything possible to support our synagogue community—financially, politically, spiritually, and communally—so that it is here for us when we need it, and also when we don’t need it, but want to meet friends or just know that the community exists for the day when we will need it.

May we understand that our congregation is a congregation ready to offer us unending and unconditional love, and may we offer that kind of love to all of those we encounter in our community. This is a special and amazing community. Let’s all of us make sure that continues by welcoming and being ready to love everyone who comes through our doors. No one here is alone. Amen and g’mar chatimah tovah—may you be sealed for a good year to come.

Anthem that followed this sermon (here sung by the composer, Shir Yaakov Feit):

Encountering Angels: Sermon Rosh Hashanah Morning 5777/2016

posted Oct 6, 2016, 11:46 AM by Heidi Hoover   [ updated Oct 6, 2016, 11:46 AM by Michael Rose ]

My mother had a collection of angels. It was kind of an accidental collection. She got a few small angel figurines, like the German Hummel figurines and other ceramic angels, and liked them, and soon it was a collection. I don’t think the figures had theological significance for her; she just liked them. When I think about angels, I usually think of their depiction in classical art—tall, often blonde, big white wings, neutral or benevolent expressions. Or I think of the popular depiction of cherubs—plump babies with tiny wings that would never get them off the ground, so that their being in the air is really inexplicable. I also feel like references to angels in popular culture are usually Christian. Comments after a death that the person has become an angel, or one that I think is really unhelpful, “God needed another angel,” are usually in a Christian context, though they’re unsupported by Christian theology. The idea that people may have a “guardian angel” is popular too, but I don’t hear it much from Jews. I haven’t heard Jews talk about angels much, especially in the context of our own lives.

There are angels throughout our tradition, though. In today’s Torah reading, the Akeidah, where Abraham nearly sacrifices his son Isaac, it is an angel who calls out to him and stops him just in time. In another Torah reading, Hagar and her son Ishmael are turned out into the wilderness by Abraham and Sarah. Hagar believes they are going to die, and it is an angel who comes to her and tells her not to be afraid. Then she sees a well, and she and Ishmael are saved. Other instances of angels are all over the Torah and the Bible: the angels who visit Abraham and save Lot and his family from Sodom and Gomorrah; the angel God promises to send to lead the Israelites through the wilderness; and many more.

In the story of Jacob, whose name later becomes Israel, he encounters angels for the first time in a dream. All alone in the wilderness, having fled the murderous rage of his brother Esau, he dreams of a ladder reaching up to heaven. Going up and down the ladder are angels. The text doesn’t tell us what they look like, but apparently there are many of them.

Rabbi Shohama Wiener, in an article for the National Havurah Conference Newsletter, cites the medieval commentator Rashi on this passage. Rashi explains that some of the angels were the ones who escorted and protected Jacob as he traveled in the Promised Land. Other angels were the ones that protected and escorted Jacob when he journeyed outside the Promised Land. Why did they need to be different angels? According to Genesis Rabbah, a collection of midrash, or stories that fill in gaps in the Torah text, “One angel never performs two missions” (Gen. Rabbah 50:2).

Rabbi Wiener writes, “What a fantastic thought! If one angel is only good for one mission, then there must be an infinite number of angels. Jacob, whose name is changed to Israel, is the paradigm for the Jewish person. What was true for Jacob should be true for us. We too must have countless numbers of angels.”

But while we may be willing to accept the idea of angels in our texts, or in folklore, can we relate to the idea of angels in our own lives? If we would like to encounter angels, or entertain the notion that there are angels in our lives, we may have to expand the picture in our head of what angels are like.

The word for angel, mal’ach, means “messenger.” Angels are messengers of God. But what does it mean to be a messenger of God? We see in the Torah that sometimes the messengers appear as people, and it’s not clear immediately that they are angels. It becomes evident because of the messages they are there to deliver.

Our sage Maimonides, about a thousand years ago, explained how expansive the concept of angels in our tradition is. In his Guide of the Perplexed, he writes that because angel also means messenger, “hence every one that is entrusted with a certain mission is an angel….” He goes on to cite Psalm 104, where the elements of wind and fire are called angels. The word “angel” is sometimes used to describe a messenger sent by a human, or sent by God to save humans, he says, giving biblical prooftexts for these angelic roles. Even functions of our minds, like the imagination and the intellect, are sometimes described as angels by our tradition, as in Kohelet Rabbah 10:20 [concerning Eccl. 10:7]: “‘When one sleeps, [the body tells the soul what it did during the day]. The soul speaks to the angel, the angel to the k'ruv [cherub] [and the k'ruv to the seraph], who then brings it before God.’” Maimonides sees here “a clear statement that the human imaginative faculty is also called "angel," and that k'ruv is used for the intellectual faculty.”

Maimonides is teaching that we can learn from our Torah, our Bible and our sages that everything God does is done through angels. The angels don’t give their opinions or argue with God, but they are the mechanism by which God’s work is accomplished, whether they are natural forces, animals, ideas, instincts, ideals, or people.

There are spots in our liturgy when we invoke angels. In Shalom Aleichem, which we sing sometimes on Shabbat evenings, we invite angels to come in peace, bless us with peace, and depart in peace. At bedtime, some say a prayer that goes like this: “In the name of the Eternal, the God of Israel, may Michael be at my right hand; Gabriel at my left; before me, Auriel; behind me, Raphael; and above my head the divine presence of God.” Rabbi Rachel Berenblat points out that Michael means “who is like God?” and so represents Wonder; Gavriel means “God’s strength,” representing Strength; Auriel means “God’s light,” representing Understanding; and Refael means “God’s Healing,” representing Comfort. So we pray to be surrounded by Wonder, Strength, Understanding, and Healing, and God’s Presence as we sleep. The four qualities—Wonder, Strength, Understanding, and Healing—are represented as angels. The late Rabbi Shlomo Carlebach wrote a beautiful tune for this bedtime blessing.

Maimonides cites another passage in Genesis Rabba, the collection of midrash on the book of Genesis, which reads: “Before the angels have accomplished their task they are called [humans], when they have accomplished it they are angels.” He says, “Consider how clearly they say that the term ‘angel’ signifies nothing but a certain action, and that every appearance of an angel is part of a prophetic vision, depending on the capacity of the person perceiving it.”

Last January 26 in the evening, I went to Manhattan to participate in a shiva minyan after the death of a friend’s father. I was on the subway headed home, reading a rather esoteric book about finding a spiritual path through some of the most obscure Jewish laws, called The Boy on the Door on the Ox. At one stop two men got on the train. One was white, one black. They were dressed exactly the same, in padded khaki jackets, khaki pants, and work boots. Each carried a medium-sized bag, one of mesh, one of plastic. The white guy, who was a big guy with a Russian accent, said loudly as they entered the crowded car: “Aren’t these seats reserved for the handicapped?” I was sitting in one of the two seats that are indeed reserved for those with disabilities. The women next to me jumped up and was out of there. The white guy plopped down next to me, pretty much right up against me because, as I said, he was a pretty big guy. He smelled very strongly, mostly of alcohol.

His companion had a cane, and I moved to stand so that he could have my seat, but he gestured for me to stay seated, saying, “No no, it’s fine, I’ll stand.”

“You can have this seat,” I said. “I’ll get up.”

“No,” he said again. “I’m glad to have the choice to stand.”

I didn’t know what that meant, but okay. I remained seated.

They talked, and I read, but was distracted by their conversation, carried on fairly loudly. The guy next to me was saying stuff to his friend like, “You know why I don’t go to AA meetings? Because they said I shouldn’t hang around with alcoholics, ha ha ha.”

At some point he turned to me and said, “Don’t mind us. We’re from a different walk of life.”

I said, “I’m fine; we’re fine here.”

Then they started talking with me. The guy who was standing asked what I was reading, and I explained that it was a book about Jewish law and how it can inform your spiritual life. He said he’s Muslim, but “I don’t judge anyone. I think we have to accept each other.” I said I agreed.

It came out that the man next to me, with the Russian accent, whose name was Yuri, fought in the Russian army in Afghanistan in the early 1980s. At one point he commented that Jews run the world, saying, “Look at Israel. America will do anything for Israel.”

I said, “Or maybe it’s not that Jews run the world, but that Israel is the only democracy in the Middle East.”

He waved a hand. “Let’s put that aside.”

I said, “Let’s put the whole thing aside.”

“OK,” he said.

A bit later he mentioned that his grandfather was “a big-time cohein in Russia.”

That surprised me because of the earlier Jews-running-the-world comment. I said, “You’re Jewish?”

“Of course,” he said.

Sometime in the course of this encounter it came out that these two men had just gotten out of prison, as in they literally had just gotten off the bus from Sing Sing, which explained the identical khaki clothing and the bags they carried.

I got off the train before they did. I found out that Yuri’s friend’s name was Marcellus, wished them well, and said goodbye, and they travelled on.

I felt that I’d had a remarkable glimpse into a world entirely different from the one I live in, and it felt like a huge privilege. I imagine the woman who jumped up and moved away when they got on the train felt afraid, or at least nervous, but throughout the experience I felt completely safe and not the slightest bit afraid. In a way that I didn’t understand, I felt protected. The moment that really showed how safe I felt was when Yuri commented about Jews running the world, I immediately pushed back. Had I felt the least bit that the situation was potentially dangerous, I wouldn’t have risked a conflict like that. I know that many of you would not have cared about whether there would be a conflict in that situation, but that’s not how I am. For me, my willingness to go there meant that I felt entirely safe, which seemed strange, given the situation. After I got off the train, I  thought, “That was amazing! And so weird! What was that?”

Then I found myself thinking, without wanting to detract in any way from Yuri and Marcellus’s humanity, that maybe they were angels. It was like the midrash said. “Before the angels have accomplished their task they are called [humans], when they have accomplished it they are angels.” And if they were angels, messengers, there must have been some task they were there to accomplish. At that time, I was dealing with feeling fearful in a number of ways, working on that issue in my spiritual and psychological life. I think they were there to show me that there are things in life and in the world that I’m not afraid of, that other people are. Wherever you are, Yuri and Marcellus, I hope things are going okay, and I thank you for being angels to me, for giving me a message I needed at that time.

I believe that whether we realize it or not, we may encounter angels in our lives, and we may be angels. As with God, we don’t have proof one way or the other of the existence of angels, divine messengers. We have no obligation to believe that they are real. But they are present in our tradition, and considering them may at least help us understand what our spiritual ancestors who invoked angels, mal’achim, were talking about.

Like the word “God,” the word “angel” can have different meanings. Many of you have heard me talk about God and say, “in whatever way you understand that word ‘God,’ which may mean the guiding voice of conscience inside us, or community, or the natural world, or the cosmos, or our sense of awe, etc.” In this sense, this word “angel” may mean: the person who showed up in a crucial moment with exactly the help we needed, or the person who made us realize something important about ourselves that we hadn’t realized before, or the comforting dream that comes in our sleep during a troubled time in our lives; or the pet that brings us comfort and companionship when we need it.

It might help us to name these kinds of experiences as angelic because it brings a sense of holiness to our lives and becomes part of our connection to the universe, to something greater than ourselves, something that cares about us. It might help us to feel that we are not alone, not ever.

Our Torah reading today is the Akeidah, in which Abraham very nearly sacrifices his beloved son Isaac. We read that when they arrive at the appointed mountain, they leave behind the two servant boys and continue on, the two of them, together. But when Abraham ties Isaac to that altar and raises the knife to slaughter him, how alone must he have felt in that moment! How could he not? But then he finds that he is not alone. There is an angel, a messenger of God, that stops him at the last moment.

It’s true that there aren’t angels that stop everything bad from happening. I don’t know why that is. It’s one of the mysteries, and that’s not a satisfying answer. It doesn’t satisfy me, and probably doesn’t satisfy a lot of you. But it’s also true that sometimes someone or something, a person or a feeling or an idea or a dream or a thought or an element of nature, comes when it is needed and makes things better—a little better or a lot better. And it’s true that sometimes we have the opportunity to be someone else’s messenger of God.

Let us look for those opportunities to be angels doing God’s work in the world. If we choose to, may we recognize where there are angels, mal’achim, messengers of God, in our lives. In the coming year, may we be surrounded by angels of Wonder, Strength, Understanding, and Healing, with the Presence of the Divine Source of Life over our heads, when we sleep and when we are awake. Amen and L’Shanah Tovah.

Broken-Hearted: Erev Rosh Hashanah Sermon 5777/2016

posted Oct 4, 2016, 4:55 PM by Heidi Hoover   [ updated Oct 4, 2016, 4:55 PM by Michael Rose ]

There are various metaphors used to describe what we are supposed to be doing during the Days of Awe, the High Holy days. Sometimes we talk about being asleep, and the shofar blast is part of what wakes us up to be in the moment and pay attention to what is really important. Sometimes we talk about cheshbon hanefesh, the accounting of our soul, and paying attention to the details of what is going on in our souls the way an accountant has to pay close attention to columns of numbers. And sometimes we talk about breaking our hearts--finding everything that is inside us in this period of self-examination, followed by repentance, atonement, and finally celebration.

Once the Baal Shem Tov (18th cent. founder of Chasidism) commanded Rabbi Zev Kitzes to learn the secret meanings behind the blast of the shofar, because Rabbi Zev was to be his caller on Rosh ha-Shanah [that is, Rabbi Zev would call out the different blasts: “Tekiah! Sh’varim!” and so on, and the Baal Shem Tov would sound the shofar]. So Rabbi Zev learned the secret meanings and wrote them down on a slip of paper to look at during the service, and put the slip of paper in his shirt pocket. When the time came for the blowing of the ram’s horn, the shofar, he began to search everywhere for the slip of paper, but it was gone; and he did not know on what meanings to concentrate. He was greatly saddened. Broken-hearted, he wept bitter tears, and called the blasts of the shofar, without concentrating on the secret meanings behind them.

Afterward, the Baal Shem Tov said to him: Lo, in the dwelling-place of the king are to be found many rooms and apartments, and there are different keys for every lock; but the master key of all is the axe, with which it is possible to open all the locks on all the gates. So it is with the shofar: The secret meanings are the keys; every gate has another meaning, but the master key is the broken heart. When a man truthfully breaks open his heart before God, he can enter into all the gates of the apartments of the Sovereign above all sovereigns, the Holy One, blessed be God. (Days of Awe: A Treasury of Jewish Wisdom for Reflection, Repentance, and Renewal on the High Holy Days, Edited by S.Y. Agnon, p. 74)

The idea here is that one can find one’s spiritual way by knowing the individual meaning of each blessing, each ritual, but if one can open oneself fully to God--breaking open one’s heart--everything can be infused with meaning, with God, at once.

Another Chasid, the Kotzker Rebbe, who lived in the first half of the 19th century, said “There is nothing as whole as a broken heart.” It sounds like a paradox: How can something that is broken be whole? And how can it be more whole than anything else?

I didn’t understand this saying until recently. For over a year, I have been in a process of spiritual direction, working with a guide to more deeply explore my spiritual life and what I want it to be. In July I had a breakthrough.

I wonder if any of you harbor negative feelings about yourselves, feelings you ignore, or deny, or suppress. Feelings that you never feel good about, that you are in a constant fight against, a fight so long-lived and so familiar that usually you don’t notice it at all. Maybe they have to do with how your body looks; or with long-standing, unexpressed grief; or with guilt about something you did or said long ago; or with anger toward someone who hurt you. I wonder if you go through the days with those feelings always there, deep below the surface, to be triggered unexpectedly sometimes, only to be buried again, perhaps with fresh negative feelings about having been triggered.

In July, in a meeting with my spiritual director, I came to a place where I was able to recognize that I have a lot of those feelings inside myself. I have been—for years—pretending they weren’t there, ignoring them, trying to resist them. In July I stopped doing that.

This has been like nothing I’ve ever done before. I realized how lonely I felt with these feelings. I began to journal. I wrote honestly, stripping away all my defenses, about how tired I am of trying to fight my negative feelings toward myself. I found myself listing what I hate about myself.

After a few weeks of writing once or twice a week, something happened. It felt like I broke open. My heart broke. And when it did, when everything inside me was exposed to the air, all the hidden pain, and need, and loss, and sadness, and loneliness, the world didn’t end. Instead, I have been feeling more deeply connected to the Torah and our other sacred texts. I am moved like I’ve never been before by Isaiah’s promise that God says, “I could not forget you! Indeed, I have inscribed you on the palms of my hands; your safety is continually in my thoughts” (Isaiah 49:15-16). When I read in Deuteronomy that God says, “I am not giving you this land (Israel) because of any virtue of yours,” I understand it in a new and deeper way: This isn’t God saying, “I’m giving you this land even though you’re bad people,” it’s God saying, “You don’t have to deserve this land. You don’t have to be perfect. I care about you just as you are, flaws and all.” It’s unconditional, divine love, and it’s wonderful. This process has not been easy--far from it. But it’s what I need to be doing, and it’s helping.

My broken heart is more whole than it was before, because every part of me, the easy and the hard, the attractive and the ugly, is fully acknowledged and allowed. And I am still worthwhile. That is what the Kotzker Rebbe was saying: When your heart breaks and everything you’ve been hiding is exposed, then you are truly a whole person.

Our rabbis taught that each of us is born with a good inclination, the yetzer ha-tov, and an evil inclination, the yetzer ha-ra. We might think that our task is to eliminate the evil inclination, so that there is only good, but that is not correct. Our task is to keep the evil inclination, the yetzer ha-ra, in check, to not let it overpower the good inclination, the yetzer ha-tov. But if we got rid of it completely, if we had no greed, for example, we would not get up and go to work and earn our living. If we had no lust, we would not reproduce.

The yetzer ha-ra, the evil inclination, is inside of us. We need it. It’s strange, isn’t it, that our tradition would value the evil inside of us, at least as long as it’s controlled and appropriately channeled? It’s strange, and it’s kind of amazing.

I wonder how many of us feel okay about negative feelings we have toward ourselves, feel okay about the parts of us we’re ashamed of. But if we have them, they are part of who we are, and we can’t deal with them unless we acknowledge them and let them exist. Some of them are part of our evil inclination, and some probably are not. But we might be in the grip of our evil inclination in thinking that the way to deal with these feelings is to fight them, to suppress them, to pretend they don’t exist. I’m not saying that it is evil to try to ignore these feelings. The evil inclination can help us to survive while we’re not equipped to deal with these feelings. Sometimes we have to deny and suppress because it’s too much. When I was ready, and when my heart broke open, the evil inclination lost that hold on me.

This is what the High Holidays are about. If we are in a place where we can handle it, they are about facing the worst that is inside of us, letting it see the light of day, breaking ourselves open, making ourselves completely vulnerable, in order to let ourselves heal. It’s hard. So very hard. It is also powerful and real and can help us get better—both in the sense of healing and in the sense of improving ourselves.

Part of my process has been feeling loneliness. I expect I’m not the only one here who has felt alone with negative feelings about myself. But I have not been alone. My spiritual director, therapist, husband, and close friends have given me safe spaces and let me know that I am loved. At the High Holidays, our worship services also try to create spaces where we can recognize that we are not alone, and that we are loved, when we make ourselves vulnerable by facing the worst in ourselves.

I mentioned earlier that when journaling, I made lists of what I don’t like in myself. When I read back over it, coincidentally around the time I was planning our services for the holidays, I found that there was something familiar about what I wrote. Last Saturday night at our S’lichot service, and in 10 days, on Yom Kippur, we will chant Ashamnu: [chant] Ashamnu, bagadnu, gazalnu, debarnu dofi. Here is what some of it means in English: We have been guilty, we have betrayed, we have stolen, we have lied, we have had evil hearts, we have scoffed, we have been scornful, we have corrupted, we have persecuted, we have broken the law, we have been stiff-necked.

That’s quite a list, and it isn’t even half of the 25 words that are in this short confession. My list of what I don’t like about myself includes some of the same and some different qualities and behaviors than those listed in the Ashamnu. It struck me, though, how much the lists resembled each other. When we confess using the Ashamnu, we are bringing our negative feelings about our behaviors, feelings we would prefer to hide or ignore, to the light. That gives us the opportunity to face them and free ourselves of having to fight them, because we can feel forgiven and those feelings can dissipate.

There is an important distinction between my list and the Ashamnu. My list is in the singular: I am these things. In the Ashamnu, we chant together, and we say we are these things. We are together. We are recognizing that there are faults in all of us, bad behavior, negative thoughts and feelings. We are acknowledging that not one of us has been perfect this year—it is impossible. We are saying that we can face together what we are ashamed of having done and been. We can be forgiven. And we can be—and are—loved.

The prophet Isaiah said, “Have no fear: you shall not be put to shame; do not cringe: your disgrace is at an end” (Isaiah 54:4a). I don’t know if it is really possible to face what we are ashamed of in ourselves without fear, but Isaiah is telling us that we will be cared for and forgiven in spite of what we are ashamed of in ourselves.

We are all in this together. If we can face what we hate in ourselves and let our hearts break open, we can heal. Psalm 147 speaks of God “healing the broken-hearted, binding up their wounds” (Psalm 147:3). I know there are many different beliefs and ideas about God in this room. That word “God” in this context might mean the strength to dig deep and let out all the ways we feel bad; it may mean the help we receive from friends, family, and mental health professionals to support us as we heal; it may mean a loving presence that cares for us unconditionally, either human or deity.

Whatever we mean when we say “God,” we all have places inside that need healing. In order to heal, they must be acknowledged. That can be so very hard. If you are ready, this is the time and this is the place. You are safe, and you are loved. In all your flaws, in all your mistakes, in all your difficulties. Here you are safe, and you are loved. The prophet Isaiah tells us, “Though the mountains may depart and the hills be removed, My love shall never depart from you, and My covenant of peace shall not be removed—says the One who loves you, the Eternal.”

The word for peace, shalom, has the same root as shalem, which means wholeness. We help our hearts to break open so that we can embrace our whole selves and heal, and God is with us as we do so—in the form of loved ones, supporters, the ability to love ourselves as we are.

May the next 10 days be days of deep soul-searching, of facing what we don’t like about ourselves, of bringing it out into the open. May we strip ourselves of our defenses and make ourselves vulnerable. And may that process help us to heal, so that the coming year may be a good and a sweet year for us. Amen and Shana Tovah u’Metukah.

(This beautiful song by Shir Yaakov Feit was the anthem after this sermon.)

(The video of the sermon is here:

From The Truth: June 2016

posted Jun 6, 2016, 9:47 AM by Michael Rose   [ updated Jun 6, 2016, 9:47 AM ]

This month we celebrate what is probably the
least known of the three most important Jewish
holidays: Shavuot. While Hanukkah is probably the
most-celebrated Jewish holiday, it is really a minor
festival that is not found in the Torah. The three major
festivals, which are all described in the Torah, are
Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot. These were the
pilgrimage holidays, when, in the time when the
Temple was still standing (before the year 70 CE),
Jews would travel to Jerusalem to bring sacrifices.

Originally all three of the festivals were
harvest celebrations. Later, they were also
theologically connected to Judaism. Passover—
probably the second-most-celebrated Jewish
holiday—remembers slavery in Egypt and the
redemption of the Israelites through the exodus.
Shavuot, on the 50th day after Passover begins,
celebrates the revelation of Torah at Mount Sinai.
Sukkot is in the fall, right after the High Holidays. It is
still a harvest holiday, and we build fragile huts to
dwell in (or visit the synagogue or a friend who has
built one), remembering the Israelites’ 40 years in the
wilderness before entering the land of Canaan, which
later was Israel.

For Passover there are seders (festive meals
with a ritual service) in people’s homes, and for
Sukkot there are the huts (which are called sukkot) in
people’s yards (or on balconies, or roofs, or in
community gardens). Shavuot doesn’t have rituals to
perform at home, or really very many traditions
surrounding it. It also falls in late May or early June,
toward the end of the school year, when there’s a lot
going on for a lot of people. Perhaps these are
reasons Shavuot is less well known.

One tradition at Shavuot is to eat dairy food
and no meat. No one knows exactly why, but one
explanation given is that when the Israelites received
the Torah they realized that their meat was not
kosher, so they only ate dairy until they could get the
meat situation straightened out. These days this
usually means cheesecake and blintzes, and other
dairy foods.

Another tradition is to stay up all night
studying. This is a relatively recent tradition,
begun by Jewish mystics at Safed, Israel in the
16th century. One reason for it is to make up for
the Israelites, who, according to midrash (stories
that fill in what we’re not told in the Torah—one
way to think of it is as fan fiction on the Torah),
fell asleep just before the revelation of Torah at
Mt. Sinai. They had to be awakened by thunder,
lightning, and the blast of a horn. Therefore, we
show that we are willing to stay up for revelation.

This year at temple, we will have our
first-ever all-ages, all-night Shavuot tikkun. We
are collaborating with Progressive Temple Beth
Ahavath Shalom for a wonderful night. The
theme will be community-building. We will begin
at 7 pm on June 11 with make-your-own blintzes
and other dairy treats. There will be havdallah
and text study, and age-appropriate activities for
children. The centerpiece of the night for adults
and teens will be a four-hour workshop, from 10
pm to 2 am, led by coaches from The Moth
( They will lead us in
beginning to craft our personal stories for telling

Stalwarts will continue until 6 am on
June 12 with more fellowship and learning. Then
we’ll be able to rest for a couple of hours, and
anyone who wishes to attend Shavuot morning
services and Yizkor is encouraged to go to
Progressive Temple Beth Ahavat Shalom, 1515
46th Street in Brooklyn, at 10:30 am. We will go
to services there and will not hold Shavuot
morning services in our building.

Kids should bring sleeping bags and
pillows, because we do expect that they will go
to sleep at some point. Adults may also bring
sleeping gear (air mattresses, etc.) if they
choose. And of course, anyone may choose not
to stay for the full night.

I have stayed up learning all night for
Shavuot twice before. My experience is that
around 3 or 4 am, I was so tired that my usual
thought patterns broke down and I began to
make connections I never had before. They
were experiences of revelation, and were both
moving and exciting.

I hope you will be able to come for at
least part of this great night so we can celebrate
Shavuot together.

Also at Shavuot we celebrate confirmation, and
at our June 11 Shabbat service in the morning at 11:15,
we will joyfully honor one confirmand, Hannalina
Hoover. At Shabbat services on Friday evening, June
10 and on Saturday morning, we will also honor Rabbi
Lizz Goldstein, our newly ordained outgoing Jacqueline
Smith Memorial Rabbinic Intern. Mazal tov to Rabbi
Goldstein and Hannalina!

Rabbi Hoover's posts at MyJewishLearning

posted Mar 21, 2015, 10:34 AM by Alice Hyatt   [ updated Aug 17, 2016, 6:10 AM by Michael Rose ]

#TBE Gratitude Day 4

posted Sep 29, 2014, 7:12 AM by Heidi Hoover   [ updated Sep 29, 2014, 7:12 AM by Michael Rose ]

Day 4 of ‪#‎TBEgratitude‬:

1. I'm grateful for delicious savory oatmeal (fresh tomato and scallion, sundried tomatoes, harissa, curry powder)
2. I'm grateful for Earl Grey Lavender tea
3. I'm grateful that I have plenty to eat and clean, plentiful water

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